Monthly Archives: May 2013

Announcing the Duplicate Finder

DrKonqi is really awesome in finding possible duplicates when a new crash report is created. This makes the work for triagers much easier because they get the information directly in the report. But my work with bugzilla shows that it’s not good enough. In many cases one gets a list of about five bug reports which are all marked as duplicate of another bug. So which one is it? One has to click all possible duplicates and trace them down. Sometimes one finds not triaged bugs, sometimes they all link to the same bug.

What one would want is to get presented the most likely duplicate directly to start with. And it would also be awesome to see all related crash reports which are not yet triaged. I spent some time thinking about it and thought that there most be an automated solution to this problem. We have the information on which are the possible duplicates, we know that the possible duplicates have further possible duplicates and we have the duplicates directly. So overall there is a network which goes from our report we start with directly to the report which should be used as the duplicate. If we add all the links we get a most likely duplicate, just need to compare the backtrace and are happy.

So I started to work on this using bugzilla’s WebService API to query a bug, find the duplicates and start to connect the various reports in a graph. The result is:

duplicate-finder

It’s a small application which takes a bug report, loads it and builds up the graph of all related crash reports. It finds the most likely duplicate and offers to mark the selected bug as a duplicate. The visualization helps to see whether there are further reports in the network and one can use the tool to also mark those as duplicates.

I hope that this is a useful tool for our bug squad team. It can be downloaded from my scratch repository. As dependencies it needs QJson, Qt4, kdelibs4 and kdepimlibs4. As runtime requirements it needs dot (Graphviz) and you should have a mailtransport configured in KMail. This is needed to mark the duplicate reports.

To start the tool use:

./duplicatefinder --from=your-bugzilla-address@email.de bugid

KWin running in Weston

This week I decided to do some research for the Wayland porting of the KDE Plasma workspaces. One of the features we will need in future is a Wayland session compositor which runs nested on a Wayland system compositor. Of course one could think of setups without a system compositor, but overall I think that a nested compositor simplifies the setup and allows to have all the low level technologies in one place without duplication in all the various compositors. +1 for working together.

After three days of work I already have something to demo (video on youtube):

Sorry for the bad audio. I’ll just explain what one can see. The video starts with the normal X-Server. After that it switches to a VT and we start Weston there. On Weston I’m starting KWin with some environment variables set to pick the correct libraries and force KWin into Wayland mode. KWin creates a connection to Wayland, creates a Wayland surface and uses it for OpenGL output. All the windows from the running X Server are rendered into this surface just as if it were a normal X11 output.

KWin also gets input from Wayland and passes it to the X Server. That’s the reason why we can see mouse interaction and working keyboard.

How it works

The OpenGL backend

KWin supports multiple backends for providing an OpenGL context and doing the texture from pixmap operation. At the moment we have an GLX and an EGL backend. Both create the OpenGL context on the XComposite overlay window and provide the texture from pixmap in the GLX case through the GLX_EXT_TEXTURE_FROM_PIXMAP extension and in the EGL case through the the EGL_KHR_image_pixmap extension.

A new backend is added which creates the OpenGL context on a Wayland surface. The backend started as a fork of the existing EGL backend with the X code stripped out. What’s a little bit tricky is getting the texture from pixmap working. The extension used in the normal EGL on X11 backend is not available. The proper solution would be a setup with XWayland, but that’s still too early as KWin does not yet support Wayland clients.

The solution I came up with is inspired by a fallback mechanism in KWin from the time when GLX_EXT_TEXTURE_FROM_PIXMAP was not guaranteed to be around: XShm to copy the pixmap content into an OpenGL texture. Not a nice solution but it works.

Input handling

Input is currently also a rather hackish solution until we have XWayland up and running. We just take all input events and forward them to the XServer with the XTest extension to inject fake events. It’s a huge hack and one can see how old X is there and how limited. I was rather surprised that it works at all. At the time of this writing the code supports keyboard events and the left, middle and right mouse button. Wheel events are tricky as X uses mouse buttons for them and for more mouse buttons I have problems with mapping them as I’m lacking a multi button mouse.

We are also not able to back sync the mouse position from X to Wayland. As far as I understood the Wayland protocol there is nothing like XWarpPointer, so if something in X warps the pointer we have a mismatch. I agree that warping is evil, but we use it in KWin for activating the screen edges :-(

Next Steps

Cursor

What is to do next is to get the changes to the cursor in X11 and set the cursor on the Wayland surface. That should not be really difficult as the XFixes extension provides everything one would need for that.

Thread

A rather huge limitation at the moment is that the connection to the Wayland display is hold in the main thread. We cannot block there, so we only get events when we actively check for them. This is currently during repainting the screen. So if you wondered why the ShowFPS effect in the video is turned on: it’s to force repaints and to keep the connection alive. This connection needs to go into a thread so that we can block there.

Buffer age

Currently the code forces as to do full-screen repaints. The two solutions we have for non-fullscreen repaints in the EGL backend do not work in the EGL on Wayland backend. The Wayland demo code shows that the EGL_EXT_buffer_age implementation could be used. We wanted to have support for that one anyway in KWin.

Giving it a try

Building from source

I just pushed the code into branch “kwin/wayland-egl-backend” on my clone kde:clones/kde-workspace/graesslin/kde-workspace. Be aware that I intend to force push to this branch.

To build you need to have the Wayland libraries around. The CMake module tries to find it through package kit. Watch the output of CMake, Wayland is only an optional dependency! If you build Wayland and Weston from source, please follow the instructions. You might also need to build Mesa from source.

How to start

Starting is rather simple. Just have an Xserver running somewhere, start Weston on a VT (don’t do nested on X, you would only get a black screen once KWin started) and open a terminal. Setup your environment variables to be able to start KWin and then start KWin in the following way:

DISPLAY=:0 KWIN_DIRECT_GL=1 KWIN_OPENGL_INTERFACE=egl_wayland kwin --replace &

KWIN_DIRECT_GL makes KWin skip the OpenGL Test application which is currently only supporting GLX and seems to fail if one is on a different VT. KWIN_OPENGL_INTERFACE tells KWin which backend to use. So by using “egl_wayland” one forces KWin to use the Wayland backend. In future we will probably detect whether the Wayland display environment variable is defined and just pick it directly (though that is dangerous in case of nested Weston on X).

When will it be available in a release

I want to get this work into 4.11 as an experimental feature for multiple reasons. I wanted to have a build dependency to Wayland in 4.11 for quite some time. So that’s a nice excuse. Unfortunately feature freeze is approaching.

Of course I want to give users something to play with. We have talked about Wayland for such a long time and there is nothing to really see that we are walking the way. Last but not least that might be a rather important solution for Plasma Active as that hopefully allows to run on hardware where we currently would not get OpenGL. With libhybris we should be able to get KWin working with OpenGL and being an X11 compositor even if the driver doesn’t support X11. Though I have not tested this case yet and have no devices to play with. But I know a few people in the community who might be interested to play with that.

Mir in Kubuntu

As you might have seen in Jonathan’s blog post we discussed Mir in Kubuntu at the “Mataro Sessions II”. It’s a topic I would have preferred to not have to discuss at all. But the dynamics in the free software world force us to discuss it and obviously our downstream needs to know why we as an upstream do not consider Mir adoption as a valid option.

This highlights a huge problem Canonical created with Mir. I cannot just say “Canonical sucks”[1] to discard Mir as an option, I have to provide proper technical arguments why we won’t integrate Mir. I have to invest time to investigate the differences, advantages and disadvantages. As I have those arguments, I thought it might be a good idea to share them in a blog post.

The discussion started during a presentation about X11 and Wayland to my fellow team mates at Blue Systems. I decided to first explain X11 as I think one cannot understand the needs for Wayland without understanding X11. I did not intend to discuss Mir at all, but somehow the discussion drifted into the direction and the valid questions were raised about what are the differences and advantages of Mir or Wayland. What followed was kind of a rant about Ubuntu and Canonical [2]. So later the week we discussed “Mir in Kubuntu” in more detail to try to find answers to the many questions this raises for our downstream.

Introduction

Frustration and lost Motivation

Before I go into more detail I want to make one thing clear: Canonical is totally allowed to develop whatever they want. I’m totally fine with this and don’t care whether they develop another display server, an own os kernel or yet another desktop shell. I couldn’t care less. It’s Canonical/Mark’s money and he can invest it in any way he considers as useful. I wouldn’t even care if it would be proprietary software, that’s all fine.

What is not fine is causing a major disruption in the free software ecosystem by giving false technical arguments and doing bold statements about software Canonical does not contribute to. This is not acceptable. This was very frustrating and destroyed lots of trust I had in Canonical. It will be difficult to rebuild this trust. Canonical can be glad that it is the free software world and not the normal corporate world. There were quite some statements which could have raised the legal department in the normal corporate world[3]. It also cost lots of motivation at least on my side and I even questioned whether it’s still worth to be a member of the free software ecosystem. Instead of working together we now have a situation where members of the ecosystem become a competitor and which badmouth part of the software stack. A very frustrating situation.

There certainly are valid reasons for developing Mir which also make sense. Unfortunately they have not been presented so far. I’m quite sure that I know the reasons and if they would have been said straight away it would have been for me and other projects probably much easier. It would have taken away the frustration which the announcement caused and we would not need to discuss it at all, because those question marks would not exist. But apparently Canonical decided to give false technical arguments over the real ones.

Not ready yet

At the moment Mir is not there yet, this is important to remember. With the announcement we basically had four options on how to handle the situation.

  1. Continue with the Wayland plan and ignore Mir
  2. Switch to Mir and ignore Wayland
  3. Support Mir and Wayland
  4. Delay decision until Mir is ready

If I map our time line for Plasma Workspaces 2 against the time line of Mir I see no overlap. We want to support Wayland before Mir is ready. So delaying the decision would be a rather bad idea. It would just throw us back. This also means that option 2 is not valid especially as we would need to delay until Mir is ready for this to happen. So the only valid options are supporting both Mir and Wayland or only Wayland. At the moment the code is not ready yet to properly decide whether supporting Mir in addition to Wayland is a valid approach or not. Last time I checked the source base I hit a few stubs and then obviously stopped looking at the code as it’s not worth the effort yet. So we have to evaluate on the knowledge we already have and that doesn’t look good on the Mir side.

Wayland vs Mir

Possible Advantages of Mir over Wayland

The differences between Mir and Wayland are rather minimal. One of the differences is that Mir uses server allocated buffers while Wayland uses client side buffer allocation. I cannot judge whether this is an advantage or disadvantage. But I trust Kristian and the Wayland team more on that topic.

Another difference is that Mir uses test-driven development. To me development methodology is not a technical argument. I rather use a working system without unit tests than a system with unit tests that doesn’t work [4]. Also KWin does not use TDD. If I would consider TDD superior I would have to question my own development methodology.

But that’s it. That are the differences I found so far which could count as an advantage for Mir. But of course there is the advantage that Mir is going to be awesome. For the disadvantages I will spend a complete section on each point.

Distro specific

So far Mir is a one-distribution solution. So far no other distribution has shown any interest in packaging Mir even if it would become a working solution. Unfortunately I don’t have the ability to see into the future, but I can use the past and the present to get ideas for the future. The past tells me that there are other Canonical specific solutions which are not available in other distributions. I do not know of any distribution which packages Unity and from all I have heard it’s even impossible to package Unity on non-Ubuntu distributions. Given that it is quite likely that Mir will go the same road. It’s designed as a solution for Unity and if distros don’t package Unity there is no need to package Mir.

This has quite some influence on a possible adoption. I do not know of any kde-workspace developer using (K)Ubuntu. I do not see how anyone would work on it or how we should be able to review code or even maintain code. It would mean all the adoption would have to go into ifdef sections nobody compiles and nobody runs. This is the best way to ensure that it starts to bit-rot. Even more our CI system runs on openSUSE so not even the CI would be able to detect breakage. Of course a downstream like Kubuntu could develop the adoption and carry it as a patch on top of upstream, but I would highly recommend them to not do this as KWin’s source code churn is too high. Also we all agree that downstream patches are evil and we would no longer be able to help in any way downstream’s user from a support perspective.

Architecture

Mir’s architecture is centered around Unity. It is difficult to really understand the architecture of Mir as the specification is so full of buzz-words that I don’t understand it [5]. From all I can see and understand Unity Next is a combination of window manager and desktop shell implemented on top of Mir. How exactly this is going to look like I do not know. Anyway it does not fit our design of having desktop shell and window manager separated and we do not know whether Mir would support that. We also do not know whether Mir would allow any other desktop shell except Unity Next, given that this is the main target. Wayland on the other hand is designed to have more than one compositor implementations. Using KWin as a session compositor is an example in the spec.

License

Wayland is licensed like X under the MIT license, which served us well for a display server. I think this is a very good choice and I am glad that the Wayland developers decided for this license. Mir is licensed under GPLv3-only with CLA. I think this is very unsuited for such a part of the stack and would render quite a risk for usage in KDE Plasma. KWin (and most KDE software) is GPLv2-or-later, this would no longer be possible, it would turn our code into GPLv3-only as KWin (or any other software which would depend on mir-server) would be a derived work of Mir. I do not consider GPLv3-only software as a possible dependency of any core part of our application stack. It renders a serious threat for the future in case of a GPLv4 which is not compatible with GPLv3. I also dislike the CLA [6]. So from a licensing perspective Mir is hardly acceptable.

Unity Specific/No Protocol

One of the most important aspects from Wayland for us is the ability to extend the protocol. This has already been a quite important feature in X and we are using our own extensions over ICCCM and EWMH to implement additional functionality. Of course our workspace has own ideas and it is important for us to be able to “standardize” those and also make them available to others if they are interested. This is possible thanks to protocol extensions.
Mir doesn’t have a real protocol. The “inner core” is described as “protocol-agnostic”. This renders a problem to us if we would want to use it. Our architecture is different (as described above) and we need a protocol between the desktop shell and the compositor. If Mir doesn’t provide that we would need to use our own protocol. And that already exists, it is called “Wayland”. So even if we would support Mir, we would need the Wayland protocol?!? That doesn’t make any sense to me. If we need to run Wayland on top of Mir just to get the features we need, why should we run Mir at all?

But it gets worse, the protocol between Mir server and Mir clients is defined as not being stable. In fact it’s promised that it will break. That’s a huge problem, I would even call it a showstopper. For Canonical that’s fine – they control the complete stack and can just adjust all bits using the protocol like QMir.

For us this looks quite different. Given that the protocol may change any time and given that the whole thing is developed for the needs of Unity we have to expect that the server libraries are not binary compatible or that old version of the server libraries cannot talk with the latest client libraries. We would constantly have to develop against an unstable and breaking base. I know that this sounds overly pessimistic but I know of one case where a change got introduced in a Canonical protocol late in the release cycle completely breaking an application in Kubuntu which wanted to use the protocol. Given this experience I would not trust that the protocol doesn’t change one day before the release meaning that Kubuntu cannot ship.

This is not awesome, it’s awful. It means KWin will not work just fine on Mir.

I hope this shows that using Mir inside the KDE Plasma workspaces is not an option. There are no advantages which would turn Mir into a better solution than Wayland and at the same time there are several showstoppers which mean that we cannot integrate Mir – not even optionally in addition to Wayland. The unstable protocol and the licensing choice are clearly not acceptable.

What this means to Kubuntu

Question marks

For Kubuntu the Mir switch by Canonical created quite some questions. One of those questions is answered: Upstream has no interest in supporting it and would most likely not accept patches for support. With upstream not using Mir the question is how the graphics stack for Kubuntu will look like once Ubuntu switched to Mir? The questions cannot be answered right now but it doesn’t look good.

Patches to the stack

Ubuntu has always had one of the worst graphics stack in the free software world. I can see this in the bug tracker. The quality of the Mesa stack in Ubuntu is really bad. For Mir Ubuntu will have to patch the Mesa stack even further. This is nothing which I would like to see. Also Mesa needs to be packaged with Wayland support. But will Canonical continue to do this? If not, would Kubuntu (and other Ubuntu flavors) need to ship their own Mesa stack? What if the changes by Canonical are so large that a standard Mesa stack doesn’t run on top of the Ubuntu stack?

Switching Sessions

One of the advantages of free software is that one can select the desktop environment in the login manager. This looks like no longer be possible in a Mir world. Unity will run with a Mir system compositor with LightDM nested underneath. We will need either the X Server or a Wayland system compositor. So from the login manager it will not be possible to start directly into a session using a different system compositor. How will it continue to be possible to use both Unity and KDE Plasma on the same system? Running a Unity and a KDE Plasma (or GNOME or XFCE or anything) session at the same time seems to no longer be possible.

System Compositor

How deep into the system is the system compositor going to be? Will it be possible to disable the Mir system compositor and replace it with X or Wayland? What if the packages start to conflict? Will it still be possible to install Kubuntu and Ubuntu on the same system? Will Canonical care about it? Will the system compositor mean that one has to decide in Grub whether to boot Ubuntu or Kubuntu?

Packages from Where

So far X, Wayland and Mesa have been packaged by Canonical. But what about the future? Will there still be packages for X, will there be packages for Wayland? If not, where to take them from? Debian unstable, most likely. But Debian might be frozen. Will it be possible at all to use the Debian packages for X and Wayland in the Ubuntu stack? Will they meet the requirements for KDE Plasma[7]? If Canonical doesn’t provide Wayland packages, they would drop to universe, so Mesa in main cannot depend on them. How to get then Mesa with Wayland support?

Only Future can tell

Those questions cannot be answered right now. It will have to wait until Mir is integrated into the Ubuntu stack. Then Kubuntu developers will see how far the stack broke. I’m not really optimistic that it will still be possible to provide the Ubuntu flavors once the transition to Mir is done. I don’t think that Canonical has any interest in the community provided distributions on top of Ubuntu any more. There are many small changes in the direction which indicate that. But we will see, maybe I’m too pessimistic.

[1] Given how Canonical introduced Mir with incorrect information about Wayland I consider this as a valid approach to dismiss the technology.

[2] I was very fed up with Ubuntu at the time anyway because our bug tracker once again exploded after the Ubuntu release.

[3] I do admit that I thought about asking KDE e.V. to send an Abmahnung after the statement that KWin would just work fine on Mir.

[4] In fact I consider TDD as utter non-sense and as a useless methodology though some aspects are useful.

[5] “with our protocol- and platform-agnostic approach, we can make sure that we reach our goal of a consistent and beautiful user experience across platforms and device form factors”

[6] Yes I know that Qt also has a CLA, which I have signed. But for Qt there is also the KDE Free Qt Foundation agreement.

[7]Last week a feature hit KWin which I cannot test/use because the X-Server is too old in Debian testing.

Compositing and “lightweight” desktops

In the general discussion about “lightweight” desktop environments I have read a few times that one should disable Compositing in KWin. That’s done in Kubuntu’s low-fat settings package and also something Jos talked about in the context of Klyde.

I have never seen an explanation on why Compositing should matter at all. It mostly boils down to “OpenGL is evil” and “I don’t want 3D”. So let’s leave the “educated guesses” behind us and have a proper look to the question whether Compositing matters for “lightweight”. (Remember: lightweight is a buzz-word without any meaning.)

Let’s start from one of the “lightweight” aspects: Memory. For this it’s important to know that KWin is a Window Manager and Compositor. You cannot just have the Window Manager – even if compositing is disabled. It’s not like xcompmgr which runs in another process. For the binary that gets loaded into memory it doesn’t matter whether compositing is enabled or not. The pure binary containing both window manager and compositor has a size of 1.3 M (on Debian testing, that should be KDE SC 4.8). But when you enable compositing an additional library gets loaded containing the Effects. They are all in one library to not have to open 40 different files. (Again on Debian testing) This library has a size of 783 K. The effects do not link any library which is not already linked by KWin core, so that’s what we are talking about from additional memory costs when using any desktop effect from binary size: 783 K!

Obviously the binary mapped into memory is just one aspect. There are also additional data structures which need to be created on the heap. I have no idea how much is really needed and cannot properly look at my system because I have a KWin with debugging symbols loaded. What’s important to know is that only Effects one uses will get loaded and use memory for their data structures. Also the Effects do not load everything they need but wait till they get activated. E.g. the cube effect will only load a background texture if the cube gets activated. But of course effects do not have anything to do with just using compositing. If you don’t want an effect, just disable it.

The biggest cost from compositing in the memory perspective is probably using the XComposite extension which redirects the rendering into an X pixmap. That’s something which will go away once we are on Wayland as application and compositor share the buffer the application is rendering to.

But even so the usage of the additional memory is not just something which is thrown out. It’s just another case of the time-memory tradeoff. Unrelated windows do not need to repaint if a window get’s unmapped, moved or resized. Just look at this comment from the non-composited switching of virtual desktops:

During virt. desktop switching, desktop areas covered by windows that are going to be hidden are first obscured by new windows with no background ( i.e. transparent ) placed right below the windows. These invisible windows are removed after the switch is complete. Reduces desktop ( wallpaper ) repaints during desktop switching

Without compositing we move the time-memory tradeoff towards using more CPU (create those windows) to prevent even more CPU usage. With compositing we don’t have to do anything of it. So disabling compositing is obviously not the silver bullet for being “lightweight”. It just means moving the time-memory tradeoff slider towards CPU.

What remains is the OpenGL question. I know that many people think it’s about having a “3D desktop”. But the desktop I’m using is quite 2D-ish. There are people saying that 2D is just a special case of 3D. Looking at OpenGL that is certainly the case. As long as you don’t use any effect which needs the “3D aspect” of OpenGL, KWin just does 2D with OpenGL. Using OpenGL means to make use of hardware which is designed to do these operations instead of doing it on the CPU which is not designed for it. But what if one doesn’t have the hardware for it? A valid question, but just not in the context of KWin. If your system only provides software rendering KWin automatically falls back to XRender based compositing.

The last aspect to mention in the context of OpenGL is texture from pixmap. I don’t know how it’s implemented in the drivers so I don’t know whether that needs additional memory or not. But if you are concerned about it: XRender does not need a texture from pixmap.

So as you can see compositing comes with a little bit more memory usage but reduces CPU usage. It’s nothing I could say which one is generally better, but less CPU usage means a sleeping CPU. Granted some effects do animations – that also requires CPU usage. If you are concerned about that it’s better to disable the effects or set the global animation speed to instant than to just disable compositing completely.

And if you try to be “lightweight” and play with the compositing settings: one unrelated change can ruin all your benefit. Just imagine you would disable compositing because you want to be “lightweight” and then you enable a window decoration which uses QML (that is interpreted code) and does animations?